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Anatomy/Physiology Ch. 3 CELLS

college level, to accompany text and lecture for combined anatomy-physiology class

ribosomes cell that stores lipid
osmolarity within nucleus; site of ribosomal subunit assembly
flagella type of membrane protein that is firmly inserted into the phospholipid layers
acetylcholine cell that fights disease
diffusion division of the cytoplasm
nucleoli outer membrane of cell
aquaporins intracellular chemical signal called second messengers, activate a series of enzymes
lysosomes glycogen, lipid, pigment, water vacuoles, and crystals are examples; not always present
gapjunction muscle cell
cAMP solutions with the same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as those found in cells
transcription water specific transmembrane proteins
microtubules contain enzymes that digest bacteria, viruses, toxins, worn out organelles, glycogen, bone
facilitated only human example is for sperm; propulsive tail
vesicular glycoproteins; interact with extracellular space and other cells
adipocyte transmembrane proteins; selective due to size and charge; some are gated
phagocytosis transmits action potentials to nerve cells or effectors
isotonic total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
ligands water-loving; polar head of phospholipid
mitosis transport for large particles, macromolecules, and fluids; exocytosis and endocytosis
Golgi large or solid material is engulfed; limited to certain cells
microvilli division of the nucleus
inclusions whiplike, motile cellular extensions that move substances across cells
translation tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly due to kinetic energy
macrophage signaling chemicals that bind specifically to plasma membrane receptors
active two subunits; synthesize proteins
voltage contains DNA; most cells have one, some have many, circulating RBC has none
gene neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle to contract; inhibits cardiac muscle
integral type of transport against the gradient that uses ATP; uses carrier proteins
channels cellular material between plasma membrane and nucleus
cilia transfer of information from DNA mRNA
tRNA Na -K ATPase is this type of pump
hydrophilic core of actin; increase surface area; found in intestinal cells and parts of kidney tubules
plasmalemma shrinkage of cell placed in a hypertonic solution
selective type of permeability that allows some substances to pass but not others
crenate equals membrane potential; results from separation of oppositely charged particles
nucleus diffusion of solvent through a membrane
antiport type of diffusion for glucose, amino acids, and ions; no ATP used
cytokinesis communicating junction between cells; found in cardiac and smooth muscle
myocyte has anticodon and carries amino acid
mitochondria segment of DNA specifying a polypeptide chain or structure of RNA
neuron intermediate products of food fuels are broken down to CO2 and H2O generating ATP
cytoplasm transfer of information from mRNA to amino acid sequence of protein
CAMs hollow tubes; determine cell shape; intracellular organelles move along
endoplasmicreticulum modifies proteins; directs them to secretory vesicles, change of plasma membrane, lysosomes
osmosis continuous with nuclear membrane; smooth and rough varieties

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