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Cell Biology

Krystal Lopez

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telophase Type of filament in eukaryotic cells composed of units of the protein tubulin.
prophase time period between cellular divisions in which cellular processes such as protein synthesis are carried out
cytosol. cellular division that yields four gametes through two cellular divisions
protein membrane-bound organelles containing chlorophyll that is found in photosynthetic organisms
plasmid Chromosome region that joins two sister chromatids.
enzyme one-half of a replicated chromosome.
anticodon Process by which a cell replicates its DNA and packages it into a new cell, resulting in two cells with a complete copy of the cell’s genome
DNA extremely small grain-like organelle that provides the sites for protein synthesis
chromatid phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes begin to pull to opposite poles of the cell
meiosis the digestive plants of food for the cell, changes shape from task to task
ribosomes All of the contents outside of the nucleus of a membrane bound cell. This includes organelles and the cytosol.
chlorophyll Any of several pigmented cytoplasmic organelles found in plant cells and other organisms, having various physiological functions, such as the synthesis and storage of food.
flagellum Division of the cytoplasm that produces distinct daughter cells.
mitosis multi-layered organelle near the nucleus used for packaging of materials to be transported out of the cell
bacteriophage Long, stringy aggregate of genes that carry heredity information and are formed from condensed chromatin.
extracellular membrane phase of mitosis in which the chromatin duplicates itself and thickens into chromosomes, the spindle fibers form, and the nuclear membrane disintegrates
haploid Attaches RNA primers to the replicating strands.
cytoplasm network of fibers throughout the cell's cytoplasm that helps the cell maintain its shape and gives support to the cell.
acetyl CoA genetically independent organelles that produce energy for the cells along their many internal folds, called cristae
exons a protein utilized in chemical reactions
Endoplasmic Reticulum spherical organelle that is the cell's control center
nucleolus a complex molecule found in numerous cellular structures that is composed of amino acids
competitive inhibitor Principle governing the balance of quantities of the four nucleic bases present in the DNA of any cell. Chargaff’s rule states that the amounts of cytosine and guanine are equal, and the amounts of thymine and adenine are equal.
RNA primase Virus which infects and destroys a bacterial host. Some phages, however, will incorporate their DNA into that of their host, and remain dormant for an extended period.
centrioles the smallest unit of life that carries out its own processes
phagocyte an extension on many unicellular organisms that enables movement through whip-like motions
transduction cylindrical structures, found in animal cells, that are composed of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 3 pattern. They help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division.
vacuoles membrane surrounding the nucleus that is covered with pores and controls nuclear traffic
cell A substance that mimics a substrate that normally binds to an enzyme. Activity of the enzyme is reduced when the inhibitor binds with the enzyme in place of the true substrate.
anaphase collective term for cells that engulf other cells or microorganisms
metaphase Coding regions of mRNA
DNA ligase the cell's highway transport system composed of tubes and membranes connected to the nuclear membrane and extending through the cytoplasm that is also utilized for storing and separating
centromere the green material found in chloroplasts that is active in photosynthesis
chromatin multi-layered, sturdy structure composed of cellulose that provides plants and other organisms with their rigidity
introns a carbohydrate that is found in cell walls
microtubules spherical structure within the nucleus that contains RNA
nucleus Mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes in eukaryotic cell division. Chromatin is located in the cell's nucleus.
plastid Having two different sets of chromosomes in the same nucleus of each cell. Most metazoans and plants are diploid.
prokaryotes The semi-fluid component of a cell's cytoplasm.
helicase Chemical used to start the Krebs cycle in plant cellular respiration
eukaryotes phase of mitosis in which the chromosome pairs line up at the equator of the cell
chloroplasts Viral transfer of DNA to new host.
nucleases Remove wrong nucleotides from the daughter strand.
DNA replication Circular loop of DNA in prokaryotes. Eukaryotic DNA is organized into chromosomes.
cellulose ribonucleic acid, a molecule that is a necessary component of the protein synthesis process
cell wall non-coding regions of mRNA
diploid primitive cell type that lacks a nuclear membrane and membrane-bound organelles
chromosome Having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell.
interphase Region outside of metazoan cells which includes compounds attached to the plasma membrane, as well as dissolved substances attracted to the surface charge of the cells.
lysosomes Unwounds a portion of the DNA Double Helix
chargaff's rule membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm that are used for storage and digestion
cytoskeleton advanced cell type with a nuclear membrane surrounding genetic material and numerous membrane-bound organelles dispersed in a complex cellular structure
cytokinesis phase of mitosis in which the chromosome pairs have separated and reached opposite poles of the cell as the spindle begins to disintegrate, the nuclear membrane reappears, and the cytoplasm begins to divide
gene expression Adds phosphate in the remaining gaps of the phosphate - sugar backbone
nuclear membrane deoxyribonucleic acid is the double-helix molecule holding the genetic information of organisms that, along with protein, composes the chromatin
mitochondria Base triplet that recognizes the complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
RNA The synthesis of proteins according to information enclosed in DNA
cell membrane A thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cell's cytoplasm.
golgi aparatus cellular division that yields two identical cells from one cell through a five-step process

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