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allele an organism's gene combination
double helix heterozygous individual that appears phenotypically the same as a homozygous dominant individual, but which has a recessive allele for an undesirable trait
gamete reproductive pattern in which haploid gametes fuse to produce a diploid zygote, which then develops by mitosis into a new organism
autosome cell division in which one diploid (2n) cell produces four haploid (n) cells called sex cells
codominant alleles fusion of male and female gametes
sex-linked trait offspring produced when two varieties of plants or animals, or closely related species, are mated
pedigree mating between closely related individuals to produce pure lines
recessive exchange of genetic material by non-sister chromatids during late prophase I of meiosis, resulting in new combinations of alleles
messenger RNA process in which the order of bases in mRNA codes for the order of amino acids in protein
sexual reproduction inheritance pattern in which the phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes
point mutation mutation affecting gene distribution to gametes during meiosis, most commonly by deletions, insertions, inversions, or translocations
polygenic inheritance error in the DNA sequence that affects only a single base pair
codon component of DNA or RNA along with a sugar and a phosphate group
heterozygous in a flower, the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
sperm equal expression of both alleles
testcross inherited trait controlled by genes located on the sex chromosomes
fertilization breeding technique used to determine whether an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous for a particular trait
phenotype error in the DNA sequence that adds or deletes a single base, causing nearly all amino acids following the mutation to be changed
heredity having identical alleles for a particular trait
transfer RNA Mendelian principle explaining the disappearance of a specific trait in the F1 generation and its reappearance in the F2 generation
trisomy gene form for each variation of a trait of an organism
dominant structures having a common evolutionary origin
monosomy having nonidentical alleles fro a particular trait
hybrid passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
genetic recombination failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis, resulting in gametes with too few or too many chromosomes
homologous chromosome male and female sex cells
genetics branch of biology that studies heredity
haploid the process by which enzymes make an RNA copy of a DNA strand
multiple alleles hidden trait of an organism that is masked by a dominant trait
crossing over absence of a chromosome
transcription male sex cell
genotype carries protein synthesis information from DNA to the ribosomes
inbreeding visible, observable trait of an organism that masks a recessive form of the trait
meiosis a cell with two copies of each type of chromosome (2n)
trait the RNA that composes ribosomes
nitrogen base inherited characteristic
frameshift mutation in the genetic code, the set of three nitrogen bases representing a specific amino acid
law of independent assortment female sex cell or gamete
pollination major source of genetic variation resulting from crossing over or random assortment
nondisjunction graphic representation showing patterns of inheritance in a family or breeding group
zygote in humans, the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which controls the inheritance of sex characteristics and differs males from females
diploid fertilized egg
homozygous random error or change in the DNA sequence that may affect whole chromosomes or just one gene
translation presence of an extra chromosome
carrier presence of more than two alleles for a given genetic trait in a species
mutation in humans, the 22 matching homologous chromosomes
dihybrid cross process in which the two strands of the double helix separate and bases pair with free nucleotides to form two molecules of DNA, each identical to the original molecule
chromosomal mutation outward appearance of an organism, regardless if its genes
replication delivers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis
incomplete dominance in DNA, the two twisted, ladder-shaped nucleotide strands held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases
ribosomal RNA determination of a given trait, such as skin color or height, produced by the interaction of many genes
egg fertilization between two organisms to study the inheritance of two different traits
sex chromosome Mendelian principle explaining that different traits are inherited independently if on different chromosomes
law of segregation a cell of an organism that has half the number of chromosomes (n)

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