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Biology Chapter 6


A Tour of the Cell

centrioles Composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring. Pairs of centrioles are within the centrosome of an animal cell (s)
glycoproteins The entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell. Term is also used for the interior of a prokaryotic cell
eukaryotic A membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal uses to digest all kinds of macromolecules
motor The fluid outside the thylakoids, which contains the chloroplast DNA, and ribosomes as well as many enzymes
peroxisome pump excess water out of a cell. "_________ vacuoles"
chromosomes A stack of thylakoids
mitochondrial A network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
fractionation focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface. "_____________ microscope"
cytoplasm The ratio of an objects image size to its real size
plastids Eating by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles
cytosol A region often located near the nucleus that is considered to be a “microtubule-organizing center”
nucleus Flattened, inter-connected sacs inside the chloroplast
resolution Take cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another. "Cell ______"
scanningelectron The in-between or middle-range sized of the three fibers that make up the cytoskeleton. "___________ filaments"
rough Area of a prokaryotic cell where the DNA is concentrated
organelles DNA concentrated in a region called the nucleoid, but no membrane separates this region from the rest of the cell. "___________ cell"
nucleoid The discrete units of DNA that carry the genetic information; located inside the nucleus
chloroplasts A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope "nuclear _________"
basalbody Visible light is passed through the specimen and then through the glass lenses. The lenses refract the light in such a waythat the image of the specimen is magnified when projected. "_____ microscope"
plasmamembrane The infoldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
centrosome proteins that interact with the cytoskeleton for cell motility. "___________ proteins"
magnification The sites of photosynthesis; found only in plants and algae
lamina A measure of the clarity of the image
chromatin A large vacuole in many plants enclosed by a membrane called the tonoplast. "_______ vacuole"
golgiapparatus Has a true nucleus, bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope. "__________ cell"
cristae A prominent structure within the nondividing nucleus where ribosomal RNA is synthesized
cytoskeleton Outer surface lacks ribosomes. "______ ER"
phagocytosis Contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell
central The sites of cellular respiration
stroma Proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
nucleolus Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. "Nuclear _________"
microtubules The center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping in a cell (two words)
thylakoids Has ribosomes that stud the outer surface. "_____ ER"
vesicle At the boundary of every cell; Functions as a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the entire volume of the cell (two words)
smooth Formed by phagocytosis and fuses to a lysosome. "______ vacuoles"
endoplasmic The thickest of the three fibers that make up the cytoskeleton
prokaryotic a microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading to hydrogen peroxide
dynein families of closely related plant organelles that include chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts
transmission – locomotor appendages that protrude from some cells. "_____ and ______" (two words)
light – a large protein composed of several polypeptides
microfilaments Vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another. "_________ vesicles"
flagellacilia subcellular structures
electron Anchors the flagellum or cilium to the cell. Structurally identical to a centriole. (two words)
endomembrane The thinnest of the three fibers that make up the cytoskeleton
granum especially useful for detailed study of the surface of a specimen. "_________ _________ microscope" (two words)
lysosome The compartment of the mitochondria enclosed by the inner membrane; contains many different enzymes as well as the mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes. "_______________ matrix"
contractile A sac made out of membrane inside of cells
food Used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells "_________ electron microscope"
envelope An extensive network of membranes that accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells "_______ reticulum"
intermediate Semifluid substance within the plasma membrane, in which organelles are found
mitochondria can spin as fast as 130,000 revolutions per minute and apply forces on particles of more than 1 million times the force of gravity (s)
transport A complex of protein and DNA that makes up chromosomes
ultracentrifuges Made up of different parts of the eukaryotic cell, and carries out a variety of tasks in the cell. "________________ system"

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