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History 101--Greeks and Romans

Judy Marks

History 101--Greeks and Romans

Shakespeare was composed of aristocrats who made laws and decisions.
Athens society is governed by small, elite group with inherited status
Consul appointed dictator of Athens for 1 year. He freed enslaved people, limited land one person cold own, and encouraged trade.
gravitas Had an atomic theory--said everything was composed of atoms.
Aristotle name of Draco's harsh law code
Senate Language of the Roman people, which is still used today by the Catholic church and in legal terms.
Patrician He believed all in nature could be explained through mathematical relationships.
Thales Greek word meaning "lover of wisdom."
PunicWars Wars between Carthage and Rome.
monarchy Wrote about the very famous assassination of Julius Caesar in the Senate.
Spartans One who behaved overly ambitious suffers retribution.
Veto Persia surrounded Spartans. Spartans groomed themselves for death, and fought until the last Spartan died.
Cleisthenes Considered the Father of Philosophy, he said everything, at a basic level, was made of water.
helot Macedonian king who reunited the Greeks.
Latin He rejected Plato's ideal forms. He said that if you wanted to understand something, you must study it. He founded all modern academic subjects, such as Biology, etc.
Solon Carthogenian commander.
Plato Athens defeated the Persians. This battle was a turning point in history, because if Persia would have won, Greeks' self-rule, citizenship, and scientific views of the world would have been lost.
BattleOfMarathon rule of society by the people
Socrates Located in North Africa, very strong and expanding much as Rome was, war between Rome and this place was inevitable.
philosophy Athenians founded this group of cities to ward against further Persian threat.
BattleOfSalamis state has total, unquestioned control over society
totalitarian Second dictator of Athens for 1 year, he created the first participatory democracy, a legislature called "ecclesia," and a "Council of 500"
Democritus This war is an example of fear causing a war. Fighting was between Athens and Sparta and lasted 30 years.
DelianLeague a people of warrior society, ruled by a king. Worshiped a sky god who used a thunderbolt weapon.
Republic A new emperor of Rome who claimed he had resorted the Republic, although he had complete control of the army and everything else.
hubris Greek colonies, ruled by Persia. They revolted, and asked Athens to help them.
nemesis During this period, after Alexander's death, Greek ideas and thinking spread beyond just Greece.
Minoans An army commander who became very powerful and named himself dictator of Rome.
aristocracy one who is too ambitious and proud. He tries to be equal to gods.
Carthage group ruled by an aristocracy, classes were unequal, their ruler was Draco
plebeans The one word the Tribune could walk in and say during unfair lawmaking, which means, "I forbid."
JuliusCaesar Greek city-states
PhillipII worshiped a "mother goddess," great traders, highly sanitary, good roads, women took part in recreation
Etruscans what Greeks called all other peoples
BattleOfThermopylae What Romans believed every man should aspire to, which means "grave, serious, and devoted to duty."
democracy upperclass aristocracy of Rome
PelopponnesianWar Savage, war-like people who burned down rome and threatened their existence. Rome had to pay them to leave. This traumatic experience caused Romans to become obsessed by strength.
TiberiusAndGaiusGracchus Son of Phillip II, who was a military genius. He led the Greeks in conquering all of the Ancient world, and wanted "divine honors."
oligarchy He went down in history as a "mortar for the cause of truth." He questioned, "What is a good life?" and "What is justice?"
Pythagoras society is ruled by elite, with status inherited by wealth
HellenisticPeriod Famous for his theory of "ideal forms," he said the sould could make contact with true beauty and goodness. He wrote "The Republic," which described his idea of a perfect government.
OfficeOfTribune Two brothers who made a last effor to revive the old Republic of Rome.
Ionia productive people of Rome, who farmed and fought in armies.
barbaros Patricians, realizing how much they needed the Plebeans, were forced to create this office, which put in place someone who looked out for the common people's interests.
Hannibal Rome's executive, "Presidential" figure
ProfessionalSoldier Cruel, war-like people who conquered and ruled the Romans for 100 years. Romans absorbed their culture, which consisted of chariot racing, gladiatorial activities, Trojan dress, etc.
Gauls Roman government consisting of aristocratic Patricians and commoners called Plebeans
Myceneans another name for "serf" or enslaved laborer
CodeWrittenInBlood rule of society by one person
polis A soldier who devotes most of his lifetime fighting in the army.
Octavian This group enslaved people, turned into a military society, first totalitarian society in history, defective children were killed.
AlexanderTheGreat Persians attacked Athens. Athens won, and said this proved that free men fight better than slaves.

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