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Weathering and Soil

Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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crystal characteristic of a material full of tiny, connected air spaces that water can seep through
oxidation mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil
soil natural inorganic solid with a crystal structure and definite chemical composition
ore dark-colored organic material in soil
sediment chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
smelting type of weathering in which rock os physically broken into smaller pieces
fertility plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
basic area of the Great Plains where wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930s
metamorphic rock word used to describe a substance that feels slippery and changes red litmus paper blue
conservation plowing natural resource that is not replaced in a useful time frame
permeable loose, weathered materials on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
abrasion process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
loam loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
humus process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
nonrenewable resource measure of how well soil supports plant growth
chemical weathering anything in the environment that humans use
sod anything in the environment that humans use
sedimentary rock planting of different crops in a field each year to maintain the soil's fertility
natural resource rock that contains a metal or useful mineral
litter type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
decomposer thick mass of grass roots and soil
soil horizon rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
natural resources series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
mineral describes a substance that reacts strongly with metals and changes blue litmus paper red
weathering geologic principle that the same geologic processes that operate today operated in the past to change Earth's surface
topsoil small, solid pieces of materials from rocks or organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion
contour plowing management og soil to prevent its destruction
uniformitarianism layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
bedrock grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
erosion solid rock beneath the soil
Dust Bowl process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock or soil
igneous rock solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again
ice wedging type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and anumals are pressed and cemeted together
subsoil rock that forms when a rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
rock cycle process by which ore is melted to seperate the useful metal from other elements
soil conservation soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year's crop are left in the ground to hold the soil in place
crop rotation organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
mechanical weathering layer of soil beneath the topsoil
acidic chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen

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