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Anatomy/Physiology Ch. 3 CELLS

college level, to accompany text and lecture for combined anatomy-physiology class

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6.diffusion of solvent through a membrane
7.cell that stores lipid
8.has anticodon and carries amino acid
12.signaling chemicals that bind specifically to plasma membrane receptors
15.intermediate products of food fuels are broken down to CO2 and H2O generating ATP
17.whiplike, motile cellular extensions that move substances across cells
18.large or solid material is engulfed; limited to certain cells
19.type of transport against the gradient that uses ATP; uses carrier proteins
21.type of membrane protein that is firmly inserted into the phospholipid layers
23.neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle to contract; inhibits cardiac muscle
27.core of actin; increase surface area; found in intestinal cells and parts of kidney tubules
28.communicating junction between cells; found in cardiac and smooth muscle
29.type of diffusion for glucose, amino acids, and ions; no ATP used
30.intracellular chemical signal called second messengers, activate a series of enzymes
32.modifies proteins; directs them to secretory vesicles, change of plasma membrane, lysosomes
34.transfer of information from mRNA to amino acid sequence of protein
36.outer membrane of cell
40.muscle cell
41.transmembrane proteins; selective due to size and charge; some are gated
42.type of permeability that allows some substances to pass but not others
43.transmits action potentials to nerve cells or effectors
44.two subunits; synthesize proteins
45.solutions with the same concentration of nonpenetrating solutes as those found in cells
1.equals membrane potential; results from separation of oppositely charged particles
2.division of the nucleus
3.cell that fights disease
4.segment of DNA specifying a polypeptide chain or structure of RNA
5.continuous with nuclear membrane; smooth and rough varieties
9.transfer of information from DNA mRNA
10.hollow tubes; determine cell shape; intracellular organelles move along
11.cellular material between plasma membrane and nucleus
13.within nucleus; site of ribosomal subunit assembly
14.glycoproteins; interact with extracellular space and other cells
16.transport for large particles, macromolecules, and fluids; exocytosis and endocytosis
20.tendency of molecules or ions to scatter evenly due to kinetic energy
22.water-loving; polar head of phospholipid
24.division of the cytoplasm
25.total concentration of all solute particles in a solution
26.glycogen, lipid, pigment, water vacuoles, and crystals are examples; not always present
31.water specific transmembrane proteins
33.shrinkage of cell placed in a hypertonic solution
35.contain enzymes that digest bacteria, viruses, toxins, worn out organelles, glycogen, bone
37.Na+-K+ ATPase is this type of pump
38.only human example is for sperm; propulsive tail
39.contains DNA; most cells have one, some have many, circulating RBC has none

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