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Concepts of Substance Dependence and Abuse


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1.recurrent activation of the reward pathway will eventually cause changes that lead to dysphoria if pathway has less than massive stimulation due to receptor ____-regulation
3.this means substance use has led to a compulsion to use; is a major life dysfunction
4.________ addiction is not relieved by treating a suspected causative condition
7.the goal of _______ in substance abuse/dependence is to decrease the frequency of substance use days and to decrease the amount of substance ingested per setting and per month
11.this part of the brain is the cognitive portion of the brain, figures out how to activate pathway again
14._________ addiction is prone to recurrence if untreated
15.this means no use of substance of abuse at all
16.this is the emotional part of the brain that's stimulated when something pleasureable happens; it's a bunch of neurons that are interconnected
19.this means the substance is used sporadically and infrequently
20.there can be stree-induced and continuous exposure due to _____________ factors that effect the NA pathway
24.people would ______ chemicals to feel euphoric, escape from reality, treat uncomfortable symptoms, and treat w/drawal symptoms
25._____ addiction is premature death in untreated individuals
29.the primary treatments are __________________ and incolve individual and/or group cognitive behavioral therapy, support group participation, and urine monitoring for drugs of abuse (also sweat, saliva and blood)
33.positive reinforcement gives the feeling of a ____
34.negative reinforcement gives the feeling of ___________
35.this is a need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxification or desired effect
36.this is the characteristic __________ syndrome for the substance or the same (or closely related) substance is taken to relieve or avoid __________ syndrome
1.substance __________ is a maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by 3 (or more) of the following, occurring at any time in the 12-mo period: tolerance, withdrawal, or the substance is often taken in larger amounts or over longer period than was intended, persistent desire or unseccessful efforts to cot down or control substance use, a great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance or recover from the substance, important social, occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced b/c of substance use, or substance use is continued despite knowledge of having persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that's likely to have been caused or exacerbated by substance
2._______ users use substances to prevent withdrawal symptoms, to relieve anticipatory anxiety, and to treat breakthrough treatments
3.recent _________ users use subtances to decrease residual physical w/drawal symptoms, to treat emotional withdrawal, to deal w/loss of cpoing strategy, increase in symptoms of comorbidity, and frequent environmental cues and triggers
5.there are psychiatric and medical ______________ that effects the NA pathway
6.any drug w/abuse potential will have direct or indirect activation of the nucleus accumbens due to _______
8.this means the substance is continued to be used despite negative consequences
9.this means the substance is used out of curiosity
10.________ reinforcement produces euphoria
12.this part of the brain releases a surge of DA; can be negative consequences associated w/it due to severe, cosistent trauma therefore causing less risk of substance abuse
13.this part of the brain gets stimulated by drugs
17.this is associated w/VTA-NA pathway; just because there's this type of risk, doesn't mean there'll be a problem
18.one starts _____ chemicals of abuse due to family history, experimentation, peer pressure, and legally prescribed
21.substance _____ is a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring w/in a 12-mo period: recurrent substance use resulting in: a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school or home; in a situation in which it is physically hazardous, legal problems, persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems causes or exacerbated by effects of substance
22.areas of _________ involve reducing cravings, removing w/drawal symptoms and preventing introduction of euphoria
23.some _______________ therapies are available to reduce cravings, remove w/drawal symptoms, and prevent introduction of euphoria
26.this is characterized by the substance of abuse becoming the most important part of the person's life and loss of family, friends, health, and work
27.____________ addiction gets worse if untreated
28.this means the substance use is an established patteren of use w/no major consequences
30.________ reinforcement produces removal of w/drawal and comorbid symptom relief
31._______ addiction is incurable but managable
32.indirect increase of DA release from the ventral tegmental are to the nucleus accumbens triggers the ______ pathway

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