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Psychology Exam1 Part 1

Emily T

Vocab words from Exam 1.

1 2               3           4 5
6     7   8    
        9     10
  11     12                                        
        14         15
    19 20          
23         24                          
          25 26        
                28 29      
34                               35              
          36 37      
38     39                                
40 41                            
  42         43        
    44         45     46                      
  47                                       48    
    53             54       55                  

2.the actual genetic information inherited from one’s parents
3.the shared values, customs, and beliefs of a group or community
6.a device that uses magnetic fields and radio-wave pulses to construct detailed, three-dimensional images of the brain; “functional” MRIs can be used to map changes in blood oxygen use as a function of task activity
12.an uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable
13.one of for anatomical regions of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, located on the top front of the brain; it contains the motor cortex and may be involved in higher-level thought processes
16.mathematical techniques that help researchers describe their data
17.the behavior that is measured of observed in an experiment
18.a descriptive research technique in which the effort is focused on a single case, usually an individual
21.a technique in which the investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior
22.psychologists who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems
24.a trait that has been selected for by nature because it increases the reproductive “fitness” of the organism
27.the shift away from strict behaviorism, begun in the 1950s, characterized by renewed interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes
28.a neurotransmitter that may play a role in the regulation of anxiety; it generally produces inhibitory effects
31.psychologists who extend the principles of scientific psychology to practical problems in the world
34.an early school of psychology; functionalists believed that the proper way to understand mind and behavior is to first analyze their function and purpose
35.chemicals released into the blood by various endocrine glands to help control a variety of internal regulatory functions
39.the principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate
41.the outer portion of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and the structures of the limbic system
46.a system of structures thought to be involved in motivational and emotional behaviors (the amygdala) and memory (the hippocampus)
47.the extent to which results generalize to other situations or are representative of real life
49.cells that transfer information fromone neruon to another; interneurons make no direct contact with the outside world
50.the fibers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons
51.a movement proposing that certain organizing principles of perception are innate and cannot be altered by experience
53.the idea that some knowledge is innate, or present at birth
55.at the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiment, including any deception that was involved
56.a statistic that indicates whether two variables vary together in a systematic way; correlation coefficients vary from +1.00 to -1.00
57.a neurotransmitter that plays multiple roles in the central and peripheral nervous system, including the excitation of muscle contractions
58.the idea that knowledge comes directly from experience
59.a forebrain structure thought to play a role in the regulation of various motivational activities, including eating, drinking, and sexual behavior
1.the middle portion of the brain, containing such structures as the tectum, superior colliculus, and inferior colliculu; midbrain structures serve as neural relay stations and may help coordinate reactions to sensory events
2.cells that fill in space between neurons, remove waste, or help neurons to communicate more efficiently
4.a movement proposing that we’re born with mental processes and “software” that guide our thinking and behavior. These innate mechanisms were acquired through natural selection in our ancestral past and help us to solve specific adaptive problems
5.the idea that it’s useful to select information from several sources rather than to rely entirely on a single perspective or school of thought
7.a movement in psychology that focuses on people’s unique capacities for choice, responsibility, and growth
8.long tail-like part of a neuron that serves as the cell’s transmitter
9.mathematical techniques that help researchers decide whether data are representative of a population or whether differences among observations can be attributed to chance
10.neither participants nor research observes are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control groups; it’s used to control for both subject and experimenter expectancies
11.a network of glands that uses the bloodstream, rather than neurons, to send chemical messages that regulate growth and other internal functions
14.segments of chromosomes that contain instructions for influencing and creating particular hereditary characteristics
15.the extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables; internally valid experiments allow for the determination of causality
19.a primitive part of the brain that sits at the juncture point where the brain and spinal cord merge. Structures in the hindbrain, including the medulla, pons, and reticular formation, act as the basic life-support system for the body
20.methods designed to observe and describe behavior
23.a hindbrain structure at the base of the brain that is involved in the coordination of complex motor skills
25.all-or-none electrical signal that travels down a neuron’s axon
26.the aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment. It must consist of at least two conditions
29.the collection of nerves that controls the more automatic needs of the body (such as heart rate, digestion, blood pressure); part of the peripheral nervous system
30.the principle that personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individual’s permission
32.the arithmetic average of a set of scores
33.cells that carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavior
36.a device used to monitor the gross electrical activity of the brain
37.the collection of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and allows information to pass from one side to the other
38.the middle point in an ordered set of scores; half of the scores fall at or below the median score, and half fall at or above the median score
40.a neurotransmitter that often leads to inhibitory effects; decreased levels have been linked to Parkinson’s disease, and increased levels have been linked to schizophrenia
42.outer layer of the brain, considered to be the seat of higher mental processes
43.morphinelike chemicals that act as the brain’s natural painkillers
44.a spontaneous change in the genetic material that occurs during the game replication process
45.the similarities and differences among biological (blood) relatives are studied to help discover the role heredity plays in physical or psychological traits
48.a school of psychology proposing that the only proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior rather than immediate conscious experience
52.the use of highly focused beams of X-rays to construct detailed anatomical maps of the living brain
54.most frequently occurring score in a set of scores

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