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Biology - Cell Structure and Function -10th Grade Vocabulary Words


Chapter 7

cell energy-requiring process that moves material against a concentrated difference
cell theory collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
nucleus idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
eukaryote cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient forthe cell to use
prokaryote cell organelle that stores material such aswater, salts,.proteins,and carbohydrates
organelle small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
cytoplasm the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
nuclear envelope network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
chromatin process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
chromosome process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
nucleolus one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
ribosome the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities
endoplasmic reticulum small,dense region within most nuclei in which the assembly of proteins begins
golgi apparatus specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
lysosome strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and other bacteria
vacuole group of similar cells that perform a particular function
mitochondrion granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
chloroplast cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
cytoskeleton stack of membranes in the cell the modifies,sorts,and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
centriole when the concentration of two solutions is the same
cell membrane internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
cell wall unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
lipid bilayer material inside the cell membrane- not including the nucleus
concentration group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
diffusion layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
equilibrium diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
osmosis organism whose cells contain nuclei
isotonic process by which a cell releases lare amounts of material
hypertonic threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
hypotonic group of organs that worktogether to ;performa specific brancch
facilitated diffusion when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
active transport processin which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
endocytosis double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
phagocylosis provess by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding enviornment
pinocytosis when comparing two solutions, the solution with the leaser concentration of solutes
exocytosis cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks
cell specialization when the concentration of asolute is the same throughout a solution
tissue movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
organ organelle found in cells of plants amd some other organisms that the energy of sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
organ system thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell

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