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Microbiology Vocab

Matt Cho

Bacteria rod-shaped bacteria; found primarily in soil
Prokaryote An organism that obtains energy from sunlight to convert into organic materials for use in cellular functions such as biosynthesis and respiration. (typically a plant)
Cocci The study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations
Bacilli Foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus
Vibrio The scientific study of disease and its causes, processes, and effects. The physical and mental abnormalities that result from disease or trauma
Spirochete a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently
Spirillum Organism that eats other organisms
Peptidoglycan genetic alteration resulting from intake through the cell membrane(s)
Gram-positive Organisms that thrive in high salt concentrations
Gram-negative Microorganisms adapted to high temperatures. Ex. hot springs and hydrothermal vents
Capsule curved rod-like bacteria
Pili Asexual reproduction. Cell divides into two cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell
Flagella Poisoned by oxygen, so they gather at the bottom of the tube where the oxygen concentration is lowest
Plasmids Very large structure of some prokaryotic such as bacterial cells. A layer deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cell
Binary fission Unicellular microorganisms often inhabiting extreme environmental conditions
Budding Requiring oxygen for life or survival
Fragmentation parasitic bacteria
Transformation Composed of small bacteria. Ensure the survival of a bacterium through periods of environmental stress
Transduction Asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments. Develop into mature, fully grown individuals that are clones of the original organism
Conjugation do not retain the crystal violet stain
Endospores no nucleus
Heterotrophs Thin, rigid fiber made of protein on the cell surface. Attach a bacterial cell to surfaces or other cells
Saprobes spirally twisted bacteria
Autotrophic Microorganisms that produce methane in anoxic conditions
Photoautotrophs Whip-like structure that allows a cell to move
Chemoautotrophs retain the color of the crystal violet stain in the Gram stain
Aerobic spherical bacteria
Facultative anaerobes An organism, typically bacteria, that gets energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds
Obligate anaerobes forms the cell walls of many bacteria
Archaebacteria Asexual reproduction. New organism develops from an outgrowth or bud
Eubacteria An organism that eats nonliving or decaying organic matter
Methanogens an organism that makes ATP if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent
Extreme halophiles single-celled organism
Extreme thermophiles These bacteria form the domain Bacteria
Pathology One bacterium transfers genetic material to another through direct contact. One “doner” and one “recipient.”
Epidemiology An organism that makes its own food using light or chemical energy

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