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Chapter 7 Memory

Encoding  Retrieval cues prime the rest of the memory pathway making the entire memory (the entire neural pathway) easier to retrieve
Storage  Rehearsal of old information prevents encoding of new information
Retrieval  STM = maintaining information for immediate use
Sensory Memory  System for creating perceptual continuity Very brief buffer for all information perceived
Short Term / Working Memory  Items in the environment that activate parts of the memory pathway because they were part of [or related to] the originally encoded pathway
Long Term Memory  Retaining information
2-Track Memory System  Dual processing as both implicit and explicit separately or simultaneously
Implicit Memory  Permanent storage
Automatic Processing   Applying known patterns to new information in order to help organization and retrieval
Procedural Memory  Enhanced recall at the beginning and end of a list of items
Explicit Memory  Memory for factual information
Effortful Processing  Newer information causes older information to become distorted because sources are confused
Chunking  Memory for skills or procedures
Mnemonics  Familiarity judgement that relies on use of retrieval cues
Semantic Memory  Mistakes in rebuilding a memory pathway Retrieval errors resulting in confusion with similar information
Episodic Memory  Enhancement at the beginning of a list; these items get more attention and can be rehearsed more
Spacing Effect   Information encoded is associated with the internal emotional state that it is encoded in and is better retrieved when in that same emotional state again
Memory Consolidation  Creating meaningful units of information to reduce the number of items to be remembered
Testing Effect  Type of processing that requires no or little attention
Recall  Memory system wherein information is implicitly encoded with no effort or attention
Recognition  Type of processing that requires attention and intent
Retrieval Cues  Newest information covers up old information
Priming  Taking information in (requires attention), Learning
Context-Dependence  Information encoded is associated with the context [environment] that it is encoded in
Mood-Congruency or State-Dependence  Enhancement at the end of a list; these items are more likely to still be in short term memory
Serial Position Effect  Memory for personal events
Primacy  Memory system that requires conscious attention for encoding to occur
Recency  Memory is NOT usually exactly as it was encoded: What is remembered is actually retrieved memory plus any associated information plus any prior expectations
Retroactive Interference   Getting information out of memory storage [either recall or recognition]
Proactive Interference  Pruning of neural pathways; Pathways that do not receive use become weaker
Encoding Failures  Repetition of the retrieval processes; retrieval practice that improves retrieval ability
Storage Decay  Information is not usually “forgotten” per se but rather not encoded well in the first place
Misinformation Effect  Self-generated and self-initiated remembering with no cues
False Memory  Unconscious organization and reorganization of memory Occurs either explicitly or implicitly during REM sleep
Reconstruction Errors  Shorter encoding [study] sessions spaced out over time gives an advantage over one long bout of encoding; gives time for consolidation

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