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Chapter 21 Vocab

Harrison McCullough

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conjugation A cyanobacterial cell that makes a nitrogen-fixing enzyme when there is a lack of nitrogen.
heterocyst A prokaryotic cell that has a nucleoid.
lysis A single cell organism that lacks membrane-bound organelles and includes archaebacterium and eubacterium.
bacillus Rapid reproduction of viruses that concludes with lysis of the virus' host cell.
methanogen Archaebacterium that lives in surprisingly hot habitats.
fruitingbody A flagellum on a bacteria that differs from eukaryotic flagella in that it rotates like a propeller.
spirillum A prokaryotic cell shaped like a sphere.
virus When a sample of cells is stained to see whether they are gram-positive or negative.
pathogen When a pathogen disrupts bodily function due to the immune system not being activated soon enough.
glycocalyx A prokaryotic cell that is rod-shaped.
emergingpathogen A structure that includes some cytoplasm and duplicate of the cell's chromosome formed by some bacteria.
bacteriophage A comparison of traits used to find the degree of relatedness of an unidentified organism and a known group.
prion A quick spread of and retreat of a disease in an area.
viroid A prokaryotic domain/kingdome that includes methanogens, halophiles, and thermophiles.
microorganism A capsule that forms a layer around a bacterial cell wall and is made of a sticky mesh.
lysogenicpathway When a pathogen successfully invades and multiplies within a host.
strain An infectious, disease-causing microorganism that multiplies rapildly within its host.
epidemic A double-stranded DNA molecule with a few proteins and is circularized.
extremethermophile A prokaryotic cell whose shape has twists in it.
gramstain A type of virus that targets bacteria cells.
endospore A compacted strand of RNA that infects organisms.
disease An epidemic that spreads over a large area, encompassing multiple countries.
eubacterium When viral DNA is integrated with host DNA and can be innactivated for a while but eventually replicated.
bacterialflagellum A certain type of organism that is too closely related the type which it is compared to to be considered seperate species.
archaebacterium An organism too small to be seen without a microscope.
numericaltaxonomy An anaroebic arcaebacterium that produces methane.
pilus A gene transfer mode for Prokaryotic cells.
plasmid A circular, seperated strand of DNA that is replicated seperately of the chromosome.
infection A small, infectious protein that attacks the nervous system.
extremehalophile Damage to the cell membrane, wall, or both, which releases cytoplasm and kills the cell.
bacterialchromosome A rigid plate that provides structure and support its cell.
coccus A short protein, shorter than a flagellum, that helps a cell stick to surfaces.
pandemic An infectious agent that is non-living and is replicated through gene transfer into its host.
prokaryoticfission A deadly new pathogen.
lyticpiathway Structures that release spores that are made by bacteria.
prokaryoticcell Archaebacterium that lives in strangely salty habitats.
cellwall A type of cell division specific to prokaryotic cells.

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