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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances I


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liter the etiology of hypo-________ is water excess, sodium deficiency, both water excess and sodium deficiency; also caused by hyperglycemia, mannitol use as well as AIDS, hypothyroidism
deficit the general response to hyponatremia is the ____________ of thirst and ADH secretion which decreases water ingestion and increases urinary output
phosphate the _____ deficit can be calulated by (0.6 x wt (in kg) x (1 - 140/Na serum)
severe __________ pf hyponatremia are primarily neurological; levels < 125 meq/l begin onset of sxs; levels < 110 meq/l see seizures and coma
sodium the value of this cation is 4.0-5.5 meq/l; require 800-1200 mg/day
magnesium a trick for hourly ____________ is 40 weight (kg); provide normal daily requirements
sodiumchloride ____ normal saline has 77 g of Na in 1 L
half the requirements for _____ are typically 35 ml/kg/day
hypernatremia ______ excess occurrs less frequently than water loss; common causes of it are hypertonic sodium gain, ingestions
rehydration this is the primary objective in treating hypernatremia; is done by giving slow infusions of glucose solutions
water the value of this cation is 1.5-2.5 meq/l; require 300-400 mg/day
formula this type of fluid is used to replace abnormal losses with a fluid and electrolytes similar to that which was lost
fluid serum __________ is calculated by (2 x Na) (BUN/2) (glucse/18)
successful the Na ______ is calculated by (14 - Na serum) x 0.6 x Kg
hyponatremia this is treated with oral fluid replacement, IV therapy, and/or drug therapy
replacement this type of edema is a sign of fluid overload; have fingerprint that remains in skin for a while
pitted ______ hyponatremia is treated with NaCl, 3% saline, furosemide diresis, serial electrolytes, seizures, replace K
central the value of this cation is 3.5-4.5 meq/l; require 0.5-1 meq/kg/day
maintenance this type of fluid has normal osmolality
hyperosmotic the value of this anion is 2.5-4.5 meq/l; require 800-1200 mg/d
thiazide in fluid ______, positive balance, isotonic is when ony ECF is expanded, hypertonic is rare and fluid shifts from ICF to ECF, and hypotonic is life-threatening and fluid moves in ICF and all compartments expand
dehydration these onse don't cross cell membranes as quickly as water does, cells pump these ions out of the cell by using pumps, increases in extracellular ion levels don't change the intracellular ion concentration
symptoms the value of this cation is 135-145 meq/l; require 1-2 meq/kg/day
insipidus this IV crystalloid has 50 G of glucose in 1 L
dilutional _______ pontine myelinosis results from overcorrection of Na; correction of > 25 meq/24048 hrs; acute correction: limit 25 meq/day; chronic correction: 10 meq/day
intake this type of diuretic can be used in hypernatremia can be used to induce sodium and water diuresis
potassium this is defined as serum sodium less than 135; very common in hospitalized pts; rarely leads to complications; ECF is more dilute than ICF; results in a shift of water into cells
brain this is done in septic shock/hemorrhagic blood loss; give crystalloid fluids at a ratio of 3:1; once 3-4 L of fluid has been give, consider giving blood
deficits this involves urine, stool, vomiting, wound drainage, tube drainages; insensible losses 200-500 ml/day (sweat); = daily intake
output this IV crystalloid has 130 g of Na in 1 L
turgor this type of fluid has higer than normal osmolality
suppression the value of this anion is 95-105 meq/l
calcium _____ loss can be due to diabetes insipidus, drugs, high proteins, insensible loss, GI loss, burns, excessive sweating
natremia indicators of __________ resuscitation are pulse 100-120 bpm and urinary output
sodium this involves IV, oral (including food and water), and if pt on IV meds; = daily output
lactatedringer diabetes _________ is treated with sodium restriction /- HCTZ
sodium 1 _____ of water = 1 kg
chloride see poor skin ______ when dehydrated; pt's skin stays in tent position after pinched
water the Parkland _______ is used to calculate how much fluid a burn patient needs; 4 cc x weight (in kg) x % TBSA burnt
normalsaline this IV crystalloid has 513 g of Na in 1 L
excess in fluid ________ (negative balance), isotonic is when fluid and lytes are lost equally, hypertonic is when fluid loss exceeds that of lytes, and hypotonic is when lytes lost exceed loss of water
hypoosmotic the __________ effect is caused by isotonic fluid loss, antidiuretic hormone secretion, acute or chronic renal failure, potassium ion loss, diuretic therapy
carbondioxide the value of this anion is 24-30 meq/l
resuscitation this refers to an elevated serum sodium level; resluts from diffusion and osmosis; there's a decrease in ICF and an increase in ECF; caused by water loss or sodium ion overload
osmolality these type of cells lose osmoles creating a higher extracellular solute concentration to portect against cerebral edema
D5W this type of fluid has lower than normal osmolality
isoosmatic this IV crystalloid has 154 g of Na in 1 L

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