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Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalaces II


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hypophosphatemia this drug is used to treat hyperkalemia; it promotes the shift of K into cells; given with glucose; use R type; onset in 30 min, duration up to 6 hrs
diarrhea this is used to treat hypermagnesemia; it forces diuresis when used w/loop diuretic
peripheral this is hgih levels of calcium which interferse w/nerve impulse, muscle contraction; may cause kidney stones; may precipitate out of body tissues; treat w/hydration/diuresis or bisphosphanate/calcitonin
albumin a single dose of KCl can contain no more than ______ mEq b/c KCl can cause GI ulceration; take with food
oral the __ __ __ sends a message to the bone, renal tubule, and the deodenal lumen if Ca is low
treatment _________ of hyperkalemia includes counteracting effects of K ions at the level of the cell membrane, promoting K ion movement into cells, and removing K ions from the body
phlebitis this is caused by exogenous ingestion or impaired renal excretion; signs are prolonged PR interval; treat w/ Ca gluconate, normal saline, loop diuretics, dialysis
KlorCon this is secreted by the thyroid gland; has a weak effect on Ca; interfers w/done resorption, favors bone uptake of Ca, and promotes Ca exretion by the kidney
insulin this is when serum potassium > 5.5; life-threatening, esp. when > 6; most important sx is EKG changes - peaked T wave, QRS widening, wide, flat P wave
KLOR low _______ levels can mean more free Ca; corrected Ca = (4 - obs. ________) x 0.8 obs Ca
calcium systemic ______________ of IV therapy are fluid overload, air embolism, and septicemia and other infection
greater Ca ___________ is maintained by PTH, vitamin, and calcitonin
normalsaline this is caused by inadequate vitamin D, hypoparathyroidism; treated w/vitamin D or Ca salts
calcium this drug is used to treat hyperkalemia; it's used in mild (K 5.5 - < 7mEq or asymptomatic) hyperkalemia; it removes K from the body by exchanging K for Na ; works in GI tract; removes 1 mEq K /1 g(oral); bowel movement required for efficacy
less this in an intracellular anion; normal range is 2.5-4.5 mg/dl; it's excreted via urine
twenty calcium _________ has 40% elemental Ca
acidosis this is used to treat hyperkalemia; it's reserved for patients w/uncontrolled hyperkalemia that has failer therapy b/c it's invasive and hard to start
hypercalcemia if serum K is _____ than 3 mEq/L, 100-200 mEq required per each change in serum K of 1 mEq/L
PTH _________ of hypomagnesemia is giving IV magnesium sulfate or oral replacement
albuterol drugs commonly associated with _________ K secretion are potassium sparing drugs: spirinolactone, PG synthesis inhibitors: ibuprofen, ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalapril, misc: bactrim, pentamidine
central kayexelate is more effective _______ than by enema
lower the max rate and dose/24 hrs for a __________ line is 10 meq/hr and 200 meq
decreased higher doses of K need a _______ line b/c KCl causes vein irritation
potassium hyperkalemia can be ______ by increased input, impaired excretion, or impaired uptake
caused a major complication of kayexelate is ____________ so suspend it in sorbital
treatment _______ deficiency predisposes an individual to hyperkalemia
sulfate the ______ the level, the more product you give
glucose this drug is used to treat hyperkalemia; it stimulate the NaK-ATPase pump causing a intracellular K shift; not very effectine; acts quickly; given via nebulizer; reserved as adjunct to insulin and glucose
hypocalcemia laxatives cause ________________ losses which may cause hypokalemia
hyperphosphatemia this drug is used to treat hyperkalemia; sodium ___________ is used to shift K into cells; SEs are sodium and fluid overload; used in mild hyperkalemia if metabolic acidosis is present
urinary if serum K is _______ than 3, 200-400 mEq required per each change is serum K of 1 mEq/L
bicarbonate this drug is used to treat hyperkalemia; it prevents insulin-induced hypoglycemia; is given along with insulin
calcitonin this is an oral K supplement; comes in tablet form; has a slower onset; decreases risk of ulceration; diff strengths have diff amount of K; immediately dispersing ER
complications a concequence of hyperkalemia is ________
hypomagnesemia this enhances Ca levels by promoting bon resorption, potentiating PTH, increasing absorption by the intestine, and reabsorption by kidney tubules
intravenous magnesium _______ has a max infusion rate; 1 gm = 8 mEq
replacement aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, corticosteroids, diuretics, levodopa, nifedipine, penicillins, and rifampin cause _______ wasting which may cause hypokalemia
insulin this is caused by poor diet, diuretics, gut losses, massive diarrhea; has a level of < 1.6 mg/dl
maximum this is the most abundant intracellular cation; kidney is the main route of elimination; found in fruits and vegetables
kayexelate this is when potassium levels are < 3.5; sxs are Alkalosis, Shallow respirations, Irritability, Confusion, Weakness, Arrhythmias, Lethargy, Thready pulse; K ions lost from GI or urinary tract; caused by decreased dietary intake, potassium depletion, or redistribution
constipation the _______ (acute, IV or PO, or IV PO) dose is 40 mEq q2h for a max of 120 mEq w/in a 6 hr period
magnesium the normal range of this electrolyte is 8.5-10.5 mg/dl; plays important role in muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, hormone secretion, and blood clotting
central monitor K levels no sooner than 60 min for _________ or IV formulation
hyperkalemia if using ___________ mag sulfate, replace Mg over several days; there is a renal threshold for reabsorption of Mg; give 1 mEq/kg on day 1 and 0.5 mEq/kg on days 3-5
immediate monitor K levels no sooner than 3 hrs for __________ release formulations
orally the max dose and rate/24 hrs for a _______ line is 40 meq/hr and 400 meq
homeostasis this electrolyte disorder is caused by renal impairment or increased intake; treated with PO4 binders: alternagel, amphogel, and Ca supplements
hypokalemia ___________ of K is done by either oral K salt supplements, diet, or IV administration of K salt solution; spirinolactone if renal loss is at work
carbonate oral mag sulfate can lead to ________
gastrointestinal this drug is used to treat hyperkalemia; _______ gluconate or choride are used to immediately counteract the effects of K on the heart; onset 1-2 min, duration 30-60 min;
dialysis this is the 2nd most important intracellular cation; plays role in energy metabolism, protein synthesis, cell division, and Ca regulation in muscle
phosphorus only 20-50% of an _____ dose of mag sulfate is absorbed
sustained the major sign of this electrolyte disorder is muscle weakness; treated by treating underlying cause, IV supplementation in emergencies, PO supplementatin routinely, keep Ph x Ca product ration < 55 (or 60 in renal disease)
vitaminD this is an oral K supplement; comes in powder form; has a quicker onset
hypermagnesemia PO4 can cause _________ so don't infuse too fast

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