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Chapter 1 Key Concepts


Criminal Justice A Brief Introduction7th Edition

conflict model a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing.
trial a formal written accusation submitted to a court by a grand jury,alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense,usually a felony.
crime control model a right guaranteed by the fifth,sixth,and fourteenth amendments requiring that criminal justice case processing be conducted with fairness and equity.
warrant a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the systems components function primarily to serve their own interests.
preliminary hearing one who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.
probable cause a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders.
indictment a proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided 1. whether a crime was committed,2. whether the crime occurred within territorial jurisdiction of the court,and 3. whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
due process model an idea that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
arraignment the civil law,the law of civil procedure,and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private matters.
social control one of two or more sentences that is served at the same time as the other sentences.
administration of justice in the strictest sense,the criminal(penal)law,the law of criminal procedure,and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law.
individual rights advocate the performance of any of the following activities detection,apprehension,detention,pretrial release,post trial release,prosecution,adjudication,correctional supervision,or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders.
criminology officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person,the place,the time,the reason for the arrest,and the arresting authority.
criminal justice a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the systems components work together harmoniously to achieve justice.
justice a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she performs it.
social justice a federal law enacted in response to terrorist attacks on the world trade centers and pentagon.
crime the aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform criminal justice functions.
consecutive sentence a group of jurors who have been selected according to law and have been sworn to hear the evidence and to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused person to trial,to investigate criminal activity generally,or to investigate the conduct of a public agency or official.
criminal justice system one who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety,the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights.
information one of two or more sentences that is served in sequence with the other sentences.
due process the principle of fairness.
grand jury the money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody.
civil justice the examination in court of the issues of fact and relevant law in a case for the purpose of convicting or acquitting the defendant.
concurrent sentence a formal,written accusation submitted to a court by a prosecutor,alleging that a specified person had committed a specified offense.
multiculturalism the rights guaranteed to all members of american society by the us constitution especially those found in the first ten amendments known as the bill of rights.
individual rights conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state,the federal government,or a local jurisdiction.
patriot act the use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group.
booking the existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger societies legal and political systems.
public order advocate strictly,the hearing before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case,in which the identity of the defendant is established,the defendant is informed of the charge and of his or her rights,and the defendant is required to enter a plea.
consensus model a set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime.
bail the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.

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