### Describing, Exploring,and Comparing Data

Jennifer Pacheco

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 classboundaries cumulative frequencies used instead of the individual class frequencies classwidth standard score deciles is a graph showed by slices of a pie bimodal sum of the frequencies for that class and all previous classes dotplot the number of values in the data set rangeruleofthumb consists of the minimum value; the 1s quartile,Q1; the median, or 2nd quartile;Q2,the 3rd quartile, Q3, maximum value outlier is a variation of values about the mean median denoted bt D1,D2,D3,.........,D9 exploratorydataanalysis distribution that is approximately bell-shaped inferentialstatistics are the largest numbers that can belong to the different classes cumulativefrequency is a value that is located very far away from almost all of the other values chebyshev'stheorem is a bar graph for qualitative data, with the bars arranged in order according to frequencies frequencytable are the smallest numbers that can belong to the different classes empiricalrule is number obtained by adding the values and dividing the total by the number of values relativefrequencies is a mean computed with the different scores assigned different weights classmidpoints are midpoints of the classes mode the mean and median are to the right of the mode relativefrequencytable if not symmetric and if it extends more to one side than the other relativefrequencyhistogram two values occur with the same greatest frequency uses line segments connected to points located directly above class midpoint values skewed denoted by Q1,Q2, andQ3 ogive more than two values occur with the same greatest frequency negativelyskewed difference between the value and the mean variance data values is plotted as a point along a scale of values meanabsolutedeviation is a value at the center or middle of a data set boxplot or a box-and-whisker diagram quartiles ___ or z score standardscore separating each value into parts; the stem and the leaf measureofcenter no more than 1/k2 of the values are more than k standard deviations away from the mean. piechart middle value descriptivestatistics value that occurs most frequently unbiasedestimator highest value - lowest value paretochart if the left half of its histogram is roughly a mirror image of its right half histogram measure of variation equal to the square of the standard deviation 5-numbersummary is a line graph that depicts cumulative frequencies lowerclasslimits is the difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive lower class boundaries multimodal vertical scale is marked with relative frequencies range sample data to make inferences about a population upperclasslimits dividing each class frequency by total of all frequencies cummulativefrequencytable divide that sum by the number of sample values mean = highest value lowest value/ 2 standarddeviation sample variance s^2 positivelyskewed an average weightedmean summarize or describe the important characteristics of a set of data midrange denoted by P1,P2,.........,P9 zscore are the numbers used to separate classes, but withou the gaps created by class limits arithmeticmean is the process of using statistical tools to investigate data set in order to understand their important charcteristics percentiles the mean and median are to the left of the mode scatterdiagram lists classes of values, along with counts steam-and-leafplot is a plot of the paired (x,y) data with a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis deviation same class limits as a frequency table,but relative frequencies are used frequencypolygon sample values lie within 2 standard deviation of the mean symmetric the number of original scores that fall into that class samplesize is a bar graph in which the horizontal scale represents classes and the vertical scale represents frequencies

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