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Weathering and Soil

Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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natural resource principle stating the geologic process operating today operated in the past
permeable process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered rock or soil
natural resources solid rock beneath the soil
decomposer layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
litter planting of different crops in a field each year to maintain the soil's fertility
humus rock formed when particels sediments are pressed and cemented together
loam the series of processes that change rocks from one type to another
conservation plowing loose, weathered materials on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
soil description of a substance that turns blue litmus paper red
topsoil formed when rocks are changed by pressure, heat or chemical reaction
acidic chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen
igneous rock anything in the environment that humans use
smelting earth materials deposited by erosion
metamorphic rock Great Plains area in the 1930s where wind erosion caused soil loss
ice wedging process of melting ore to seperate useful material from other elements
weathering plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
crop rotation description of a substance that turns red litmus paper blue
crystal rock that contains a metal or useful mineral
uniformitarianism chemical and physical processes that break down rock at Earth's surface
subsoil dark-colored organic material in soil
sediment solid in which atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern
mineral anything in the environment that humans use
sedimentary rock thick mass of grass roots and soil
rock cycle process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
chemical weathering management og soil to prevent its destruction
erosion method used to hold the soil in place by keeping dead stalks from the previous harvest
nonrenewable resource weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
ore natural inorganic solid with crystal structure and chemical composition
abrasion layer of soil beneath the topsoil
soil conservation grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind
bedrock loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil
basic physical characteristic that allows water to seep through
fertility process of splititng rocks by water seeping into cracks, freezing and expanding
Dust Bowl measure of how well soil supports plant growth
soil horizon rock formed by the cooling of melten rock
contour plowing natural resource that is not replaced in a useful time frame
oxidation rich, fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
sod organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
mechanical weathering the varitey of components that make up the topmost layer of soil

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